请选择 进入手机版 | 继续访问电脑版

齐鲁弈友

 找回密码
 注册
搜索
热搜: 活动 交友 discuz
查看: 9924|回复: 7

ACBL常用约定 ▪ 防守数据 ▪ 基础理论

[复制链接]
发表于 2010-11-4 14:10:55 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 csq2005ygf 于 2017-5-10 06:15 编辑

Commonly Used Conventions

Fourth Suit Forcing
Blackwood
Cappelletti (Part 1)
Cappelletti (Part 2)
DONT
DOPI, ROPI, DEPO
Jacoby 2NT
Jacoby Transfers
Michaels
Negative Doubles
New Minor Forcing
Overcalls (Part 1)
Overcalls (Part 2)
Puppet Stayman
Responding to a Takeout Double
Responsive Doubles
Roman Key Card Blackwood
Smolen
Splinters
Stayman
Texas Transfers
Unusual vs. Unusual
Weak Two-bids (Part 1)
Weak Two-bids (Part 2)




Defense Database
Defenses to:
1. Opening Bids

2. Weak Preempts
3. Weak/Strong Preempts




DEFENSES TO:
1. MID-CHART CONVENTIONS APPROVED FOR ALL MID-CHART EVENTS

2. MID-CHART CONVENTIONS APPROVED FOR MID-CHART TEAM EVENTS
3. MID-CHART CONVENTIONS APPROVED FOR MID-CHART KNOCKOUT TEAM EVENTS
[size=1.15em]A. 2C opening limited hand with major
[size=1.15em]B. 1H opening showing spades, limited

[ 本帖最后由 csq2005ygf 于 2016-7-26 18:24 编辑 ]
 楼主| 发表于 2010-11-4 15:21:21 | 显示全部楼层

桥牌资料

这里有13种叫牌体系、200多个约定叫、40类各种信号:

http://www.gwilliams.org.uk/index.html

[ 本帖最后由 csq2005ygf 于 2014-11-14 02:04 编辑 ]
 楼主| 发表于 2010-11-7 18:25:59 | 显示全部楼层

基础理论

http://www.rpbridge.net/index.htm



Playing Tricks
Use instead of point count for preemptive bids and for bidding extremely freakish hands.



[ 本帖最后由 csq2005ygf 于 2014-11-14 02:05 编辑 ]

本帖子中包含更多资源

您需要 登录 才可以下载或查看,没有帐号?注册

x
 楼主| 发表于 2012-1-29 11:02:02 | 显示全部楼层

【桥牌苑】The Wednesday Game

Play-of-the-Hand

In the past 6 years, The Wednesday Game has published 150 sets of hand analyses for bridge clubs around North America.  From those games we have selected  the highlights, over 1,000 of the most interesting and instructive play-of-the-hand and defensive examples.  They are organized by category such as False Carding, Safety Play, Elimination Play, Trump Promotion, Deception, about 70 categories in all.  Just follow the link


Bidding Quizzes

We have also assembled the best bidding problems we could find, again there are over 1,000 of them!  These have an Index of  their own, over 80 categories, such as Negative Doubles, Minorwood, Balancing, Drury, Bergen, Puppet Stayman, Choice of Rebid, and many others.  Most of the entries are in Quiz Format, giving you the opportunity to select your answer before reading the text. Follow the link


Conventions

An easy-to-read library of commonly used conventions.  Over 60 articles at the current time.  Want to brush up on your Responsive Doubles, for example?  You'll find it in our Convention Library, and when you’ve finished reading up on the subject, just hop over to the Bidding Quizzes for examples of the convention in action.  Follow the link

[ 本帖最后由 csq2005ygf 于 2013-1-9 13:32 编辑 ]
 楼主| 发表于 2012-12-20 07:45:40 | 显示全部楼层

《叫还是不叫:总磴数定律》各章总结

本帖最后由 csq2005ygf 于 2017-9-20 08:51 编辑

To Bid or Not to Bid:
The LAW of Total Tricks

—— Larry Cohen
                  
第一章   
总磴数定律(The Law of Total Tricks)说明:任何一付牌,双方可能赢磴的总数恒等于双方王牌的总数。
决定双方的王牌系以双方最长的一门花色为准。
总磴数的产生,系按双方各以其最长的花色为王牌,所赢取的最高磴数合并计算而得,但必须在最佳的主打与防御的情况下行之。
大牌的位置和关键花色的分配对于总磴数的产生,并无影响。将大牌的位置和牌型的分配予以调换或变更,充其量不过使某一方多赢一磴,而另一方则多输一磴,至于双方加起来的总磴数,不会变动。
把桥书、杂志或报纸上的桥艺专栏中的牌局,对本定律作分析、验证,若干牌局可能因过于复杂,难以分析,有的则发现和本定律的说法有不符之处。
务请忍耐安心!本书以后的章节中对于本定律将有更精进的阐析,目前只要专心努力于它的基本法则和运用。


第二章   
运用本定律的最大要点是要由叫牌的过程中推算双方王牌的张数。
要极其准确地算出王牌总张数并非易事,但计算约数则属绝对必要。
在你决定作任何竞叫以前,第一步骤是依据前此双方叫牌,心算每一方各有几张王牌。
计算王牌总张数之后,第二步是依据得分表解,先算如由我方主打,可赢若干磴,我方得若干分;再算如由敌方主打,他们可赢若干磴,我方得若干分。
当对王牌总张数有怀疑时,可以先假定一个起算基点。或为「最有利情况」均无不可。
如为18王牌总张数,必须经常以三线抢叫三线。
如为16或更少王牌总张数,永不以三线抢叫三线。
当运用本定律的经验日益丰富之后,对于推断双方的王牌张数亦将益形熟练而易为。


第三章   
当你乐于使用总磴数定律时,必须深入了解「调整」的必要性。
负面调整经常因持有敌方的王牌花色中半大不小的牌而产生,必须低估你方的总磴数。
正面调整则于持有极坚实的王牌和旁门花色,而且有奇佳的牌型分配时行之。
本书第九章将对此一问题作更精进和详细的分析。


第四章
总磴数定律是告诉你:你方可以叫到的线位恒等於所持王牌的张数。
本定律所允许的叫牌线位,我们称之为「本定律保障」,其意义为:
叫到本定律所允许的线位是受到保障的,因为即使所叫的合约被打垮,那麽敌方一定持有他可以主打的成约的王牌,因而我方十之八九都是得多於失。
兹将用来竞叫到本定律保障的线位的各种方法,简列如下:
一、柏根加叫法:用以通知同伴加叫人的牌力,更重要的是我方王牌的张数。
二、竞叫中的抢先加叫:一算有9张以上的王牌,马上叫上三线。
三、对於杰可贝转换叫的答叫:一算有9张以上王牌,马上叫上三线。
四、抢先叫:一算准王牌的张数,马上叫到本定律保障的线位。
五、D.O.N.T.:对抗敌方开叫1NT最好的办法是,在安全的线位上叫出所持有的一门或到两门花色。
六、支持性赌倍:立即通知同伴在王牌上是有3张或4张的支持。
七、不寻常的1NT:在安全的线位上加入竞叫,寻找王牌的配合。
八、两种方式的杜鲁莱叫法:表达持有3张或4张的王牌支持。


第五章
敌方持有 8 张王牌配合,而停止於二线上,他们是处於大好情况,我方要想尽办法不要让他们主打!
我们推介下述各种叫法,都可以和敌方叫到二线合约争一日之短长:
一、奥巴叫法:在直接位置上作平衡叫。
二、选择性2NT:这是说「夥计,请叫出你手中最好的竞叫花色!」
三、超级不寻常2NT:持有任何两门未叫出的花色。
四、好坏2NT:可以在最低线位上抢叫。
五、积极性低花加叫:马上超越敌方最合适的二线合约。
要特别注意:不要和敌方并不一定持8张王牌配合的合约,从事竞叫。
不要让同伴在很尴尬的情况下,考虑要否从事平衡叫。


第六章
在双方竞叫的过程中,往往会感到被迫要再往上叫,但如你知道你方的王牌长度不足以支持你再叫高一线,你就要按捺内心的冲动,尽力煞下车来!
同伴之间对於赌倍敌方四线高花开叫所表达的意义,必须明确地加以界定,千万不可模棱两可!
同伴赌倍敌方的四线高花合约,你如要叫你方自己的花色时,一定要先估算一下王牌总张数,因为你方的王牌长度通常都不足以支持能够叫上更高的线位。经常把前述许多「分析表」的观念放在脑中,尤其是在你想放弃防御而要主打自己的合约之时!
罚放敌方被赌倍的三线合约(尤其可以确定敌方持有9张王牌时),看来风险很大,但往往都是赢分的机会。你当然必须有些许偶尔会奉送530分大礼给敌方的心理准备,但是更多的机会将使你收领 +100 或 +300 的分数。你更要万分小心,不要被敌方追上四线,当双方都不会赢取超过 8 磴牌时。
如果敌方只叫到二线,而又确定他们持有 8 张王牌时,那又是另外一回事。二线的线位相当低,你方大都会找到有足够的王牌长度来进行竞叫。
当敌方的王牌於你手中为缺门时,尽量避免当防家。


第七章     
当你决定应否对敌方的无王进行竞叫时,本定律照样可以派上用场。
当一方是无王,另一方是王牌时,总磴数的计算是以 7 加上王牌的张数为基础。
如有一门长而又可以走通的花色,以及单张或缺门时,总磴数应予调整。
本书第四章所推荐的D.O.N.T.特约叫法,以本章的无王公式来验证,益显其优点,强大而有效。
应用本定律来对抗对方的无王合约,实施的机会并不很大,因为往往找不到足够的总磴数来进行竞叫。


第八章
「五线的合约属於敌方」这句箴言真正要你做的事是:在你决定以五线来竞叫五线时,必需要事先弄清楚你方确有足够多的王牌,足以支持你的竞叫。
「以4S超叫4H」就长期观点看,是很稀有的利多於害的桥战行为之一。
「在畸型牌局中,不妨多叫一线」是一句很健全的箴言,但却是「不要把线位抬得大高」的正常原则的例外。
「持有敌方王牌 4 张,考虑赌倍」就长期观点看,绝对是赚多赔少的。王牌的 4—1 分配表明持有的一方,不论当防方还是抢过来打自己的合约,都会多得一个赢磴。


第九章
在竞叫过程中,我们没有办法估算出绝对正确的王牌总张数,但我们可以应用各种调整的方法,协助我们的估算,更趋正确。
大多数的牌局都有贫瘠牌张结构的问题。对方花色的贫瘠牌张结构,於我方当防御时,通常会产生赢磴,但如来我方抢过来主打自己的花色,则往往毫无价值。
调整计有两种方式:
—、负面调整——减算王牌总张数(总磴数)
(1)负面的牌张(敌方花色中的次级大牌,或己方花色相当破烂)。
(2)负面的配合(不配合)。
(3)负面的牌型(平均牌型)。
二、正面调整——加算王牌总张数(总磴数)。
(1)正面的牌张(无敌方花色的次级大牌,己方花色相当健康)。
(2)正面的配合(双双配合)。
(3)正面的牌型(缺门和另外的长花色)。
有时情况并不明显,难以决定究应调整 0.5 赢磴或 1 赢磴时,则应运用相关的调整因素,在本定律的原则下,作出应该倾向低估或是高估的决定。
我们应运用 0.5 王牌总张数(总磴数)的观念,当情况是:
(1)我们认定王牌为 8 或 9 张时,应认其为 8.5 。
(2)我们持有敌方所叫花色的次级大牌,有时会产生1赢磴,有时却毫无价值(如 QJ9 )。


第十章
读完本书,读者诸君定会感到,本定律都倾向于不要高叫,宁当防御,因为大多数的毛病都出在过分高叫上面,熟习本定律当会渐渐改进这一方面的错失。
作者个人的建议是:尽量严格遵守本定律,但有一点要注意:当你犹疑难决时(即无法确定王牌总张数究为若干),则不妨倾向于高限,这样子也许会诱使你多作竞叫,而少事防御,因为有一点可以使本定律的过分苛严,获得平衡,那就是敌方有时会送礼给你,作出愚蠢的首引或差劲的防御。


第十一章
本书所选的牌例,都是尽量往本定律脸上贴金的。当然也可以挖掘出许多牌例,使本定律灰头土脸丧失颜面。但是依据本书作者二、三十年来的观察,已深深相信本定律创造的成功远胜于遭遇的失败。初学本定律的桥手万勿因为遭逢一两次失败,就心灰意冷,自信全失,经过相当时间以后,一定会体会到知道本定律比不知道本定律要好得太多!
对本书作者个人来说,本定律就是胜与负的分水岭。





Bridge Problem 6
South/  [ 5 4
All        ] 5 4 3
            { K Q 5 4
            } K 6 5 2


            [ A K Q J 10 2
            ] A K J 7 6
            { A
            } A

West North East South
                           2S
Pass 2NT* Pass 6H
Pass 6S     Pass Pass
Pass

Opening lead: Queen of clubs.

North bids 2NT that are a two-way response with either
a weak or a strong hand with no other available bid),
North suspect on the second bidding round that he has
nothing to contribute with and therefore just correct to
six spades.
How do you, if possible, guard against that the hearts
isn’t behaving to make the contract?   




                    [ 5 4
                    ] 5 4 3
                    { K Q 5 4
                    } K 6 5 2

[ 7 6                               [ 9 8 3
] 10                                ] Q 9 8 2
{ J 9 8 7 2                      { 10 6 3
} Q J 10 4 3                   } 9 8 7

                    [ A K Q J 10 2
                    ] A K J 7 6
                    { A
                    } A


Answer to Bridge Problem 6

Cash the ace of clubs and pull trumps until one of the
defenders has precisely one left. Then cash the ace of
diamonds and the ace of hearts.
When the hearts are at worst 4-1, you pull the remaining
trump and exit with a low heart that reveals the layout.
East or West has to get in and have to help you with a
heart return or put dummy in for discards on dummy’s
minor winners.
If the hearts are 5-0 you have to play on the fact that
the player that has three trumps is the one being void in
hearts.
A low trump will then endplay that defender (if that one
hasn’t ruffed already) and he then has to give you the
entry to dummy.
Did you spare one trump? Well done!


标准答案:
先试S套,第2墩出S4,用J飞。

理由:
先飞DJ,飞失宕一;飞中(成功率50%)MK。可是无任何信息的双向飞,只能撞大运。
先飞SK,飞失宕一;飞中(成功率50%)除保留飞DJ外,额外增加树S的机会,总成功率可提升到大约64%。
既然风险一样,定约人没有理由不选择投入低回报高的方案。

桥牌的多元化:游戏(娱乐休闲)、技艺(技能学术)、职业(经营赢利)、工具(社交培训)集于一身。





浅谈桥牌对提高学生成功素质的作用(ZT)

       桥牌作为一种高雅、文明、竞技性很强的智力性游戏,以它特有的魅力称雄于各类牌戏,风靡全球。桥牌是2002年冬季奥运会表演项目和2007年全国大学生运动会正式比赛项目,世界很多知名人士如比尔·盖茨以及我国许多领导人如邓小平、万里等同志都是桥牌爱好者。武汉科技大学中南分校2005年将桥牌列为成功素质教育选修课,报名参加的学生越来越多,2010年上学期作为体育选项课后已达到700余人。笔者通过这几年的桥牌教学发现,学生学习桥牌对于培养成功素质具有很大作用。

  一、桥牌活动有利于学生树立先进的观念

  成功素质教育的根本目的是促进学生走向成功,促进学生成功必须培养学生的成功素质。成功素质是指主体具备的与其所追求的人生目标相关联的具有创新性且个性突出的优秀素质,包括先进的观念、优秀的品格、广博的知识、卓越的能力和科学的方法。其中,先进的观念主要包括正确的世界观、人生观、价值观和敬业精神、拼搏精神、创新精神等。桥牌靠运气很少,而多在于凭智慧、配合赢牌。在打牌过程中,要运用很多数学、逻辑学的知识,计算和记忆能力在桥牌中非常重要。同时,打桥牌需要顽强的拼搏,不懈的坚持,富于智谋的变化和创新等等。打桥牌较有乐趣,可与棋、琴、书、画等媲美,但事实上学习桥牌是个比较艰苦的过程,要学好桥牌进入高手之列需要花费大量的时间和精力,付出艰辛的努力。具体到每一场牌,面对紧张激烈、跌宕起伏、变化莫测的牌局,只有发扬顽强拼搏的精神才能取得最终胜利。长期在桥牌的胜负中滚打爬摸,可以培养毅力与坚强的意志品质。
  桥牌也可以开发想象力和创造力。在空旷的牌桌上打牌如同在白纸上作画,需要想象力和创造力,想象力和创造力贫乏的人,牌艺是无法达到最高境界的。桥牌有很多算不清的地方,驾驭这些不明之处要靠悟性和想象力。常打桥牌,对学生的想象力是一种极好的锻炼。桥牌变化无穷,千古无同牌。历史上的名局,是牌桌双方共同竭力创造的珍宝,而其中的奇思妙想之招,便是大师们发挥想象力和创造力奉献给世人的一颗颗璀璨的名珠。学生在打牌时虽然牌艺不高,但却是他们自己的真实创造,出奇出新,异想天开偶有涌现,长期积累下去,在牌艺提高的同时,他们的想象力和创造力也不断提升。这些无疑有利于正确的世界观、人生观、价值观以及敬业精神、拼搏精神、创新精神的培养。

     二、桥牌活动有利于培养学生优秀的品格

  成功素质优秀的品格主要包括远大的志向、过人的胆识、进取的心态、坚强的意志、高尚的道德、崇实的品质、博大的胸怀、优良的性格等等。打桥牌特别强调把握牌局形势,与合作者默契配合,顺境和逆境中心态良好,牌友交往中绅士风度等等,对于学生改善人际关系,培养人际关系中的协调、配合能力大有益处。我们不难理解“桥”字在桥牌中的重要,打好桥牌必须在搭档之间密切合作、齐心协力,才能实现目标。
  同时,桥牌的基本过程类似于签订合同的全过程。所谓“定约”(contract),英语中就是“合同”之意:投标、竞标,双方讨价还价,最后由一方签得合同,然后此一方为完成合同任务而制定计划,而另一方则为其设置障碍、阻止其完成计划。多劳多得和尽量减少损失等原则在桥牌中体现得非常充分,这对于培养学生在现代社会中的诚信道德无疑是有作用的。
  打桥牌有时对手还会对你实施心理战术。仅就一副牌而言,高手也不敢狂言一定赢初学者。牌手在经过精密的计算和判断之后,以某种高级打法(如投入、挤牌等)完成了有难度的定约,这对于学生心理素质培养的作用是不言而喻的。再者,桥牌可以提高学生的抗挫折能力。现在的学生多娇生惯养,过分的宠爱使他们的抗挫折能力普遍偏低,给学生完成社会化角色转变带来阻碍。桥牌与人生有许多相通之处,是对学生实施挫折教育的良师。在桥牌的胜负里会遇到许多的挫折,学生要不断地在失败中品尝痛苦,自我疗伤。刚开始输牌时心里会感觉很难受,牌打多了,学生的心里承受能力将会逐渐增强。桥牌可启迪学生对成功与失败的正确理解,不断增强学生抗挫折能力,让他们学会从容面对现实,具备良好的心里素质与积极向上的精神,养成在逆境中不言放弃,不畏困难,快速调整心态奋发进取的好习惯。
  桥牌可以培养学生的合作精神。信任是同伴必须具备的素养,彼此不信任就会出现沟通障碍,更不可能协作默契打宕敌方的定约。由于猜疑造成叫牌误解和打牌失误的情况经常会出现。打牌中防守方牌手必须协作,不能一相情愿地出牌,不能漫不经心地出牌,不能堵气地出有利于敌方牌。只有通力合作才能获得最高奖分,才能尽力降低损失。宽容是每一名牌手都应不断提高的修养。初学者肯定会问题多多,大师也不可避免地会出现错误,作为牌手必须保持宽容的心态,心平气和地指出问题,让同伴感到温暖,感到真诚,得到激励。
  桥牌也可以培养学生的团队精神。桥牌讲求信息透明化,叫牌就是用桥牌的语言把自己的牌力和牌型告诉同伴和对手。桥牌讲求全局观念,桥牌中的阻击战术和忍让战术就是牺牲局部换取全局的胜利,用现在的话说就是注重团队精神。沟通、信任、协作、宽容虽然是非智力品质,但对于提高桥牌运动水平有着不可低估的作用,而这四种品质恰恰是团队精神的重要内容。好的桥牌手,自然可以将这种团队精神迁移到工作和社会生活之中。
  桥牌还可以陶冶情操,提高文化品位和修养。桥牌是一项高雅的智力运动项目,其中深奥的哲学理论以及特有的文化内涵在潜移默化中影响学生的世界观和人生观。同时,学生在打桥牌过程中的一举一动都影响着他人对自己品格素质的了解。打牌中要求牌手讲文明,懂礼貌,胜不骄,败不馁,常打桥牌的人,大都具有善良温和的性格,谦虚谨慎的美德与文明高雅的气质。桥牌可以充实生活,丰富人生,避免学生沉迷于网络游戏,赌博或从事其它不健康的活动,使学生生活更有情趣,可以陶冶情操,帮助学生建立高尚的道德品质,提高学生的文化品位和修养。

  三、桥牌活动特别有利于学生卓越能力的培养

  人的智慧在很大程度上要靠后天的培养。桥牌是绝好的大脑健美操,每一局牌中的每一张出牌都要开动脑筋与对手斗智斗勇,在不断地提出问题和解决问题的过程中,大脑将得到充分的锻炼,变得日益灵活,使学生养成爱动脑筋、勤思考的好习惯。学好桥牌需要记住大量的规则和原理,牌后复牌、录牌谱等都对记忆力有极大的训练作用。
  桥牌可以锻炼数学思维,提高计算能力。很多学生对数字加减乘除的计算感到枯燥乏味,而打桥牌可以让学生在娱乐中不知不觉地接纳数学知识。 桥牌堪称数学的乐园,应用数学的机会很多,数点、计算牌型、牌张、数赢墩、制定做庄路线和防守路线等都需要计算,且这些计算都是通过心算来完成,时刻都在锻炼着学生们的数学思维,提高他们的计算能力和推理能力,对其它学科的学习也是非常有益的。桥牌可以培养学生的注意力。打桥牌要求打牌者始终高度集中注意力思考、计算、判断,才能正确应对,不然有可能一张牌出错,全盘皆输。学生们大多争强好胜,为避免输牌会集中注意力并养成好习惯,长期打桥牌,对培养学生的注意力方面有独特的功效。
  桥牌可以提高逻辑思维能力。桥牌出牌很讲逻辑,每一张出牌都要有明确的目的,有些具有丰富的思想内涵,桥牌水平越高就越严密。学生们的思维正处于发展阶段,桥牌给学生们提供了一个逻辑思维能力的载体,牌桌上局面错综复杂,千变万化,只有不断审查局势,寻找头绪,把不可能的出法排除,把可能的出法按逻辑关系排列,只有这样才能找到正确的着手。许多高深的哲学思想与逻辑推理问题,在兴趣盎然的游戏中不知不觉就完成了,学生的逻辑思维能力无形中得到了提高。
  桥牌也能培养学生的独立能力。如今的学生大多数是独生子女,依赖性强,而打桥牌需要学生在没有如何支援的情况下独立解决牌桌上出现的问题,并从中不断自我反省,不断自己总结经验教训,从而逐渐提高学生的独立意识,有效培养学生独立思考和独立解决问题的能力,让学生养成遇事有主见,能独立自强的好习惯。
  桥牌可以提高解决问题的能力与效率。打牌时面对纷繁复杂的局面,必须要审时度势化繁为简,分清主要矛盾和次要矛盾,找准主要矛盾的焦点问题,然后想出解决焦点问题的办法,争取找到最大概率的出牌次序,这样才能减少犯错误的机率,提高成功率。如此这般养成了习惯,学生们发现问题、分析问题及解决问题的能力便会大大提高,思维清晰敏捷,凡事三思而后行,少犯错误,少走弯路,自然会提高学习、做事的效率。
  桥牌还可以培养学生的组织能力与领导能力。打桥牌过程中学生就是指挥局部与全局战役的指挥官,运筹帷幄于牌桌之上,学生的组织,指挥,领导,决策能力无时不刻在得到考验锻炼,从中可以提高分析、解决问题的能力,提高胆量和魄力;培养遇事冷静,临危不乱,指挥若定的风度;让学生具备良好的大局观,养成对事物善于应变,善于统筹安排的好习惯,取舍有度,进退自如;还可以让学生学会换位思考,即站在别人的角度考虑问题,这些都可为将来担任领导或管理职务并成为佼佼者打下良好的基础。
  总而言之,桥牌是让学生受益一生的爱好。学生桥牌打得好,如在重大比赛中获得名次,在毕业后找工作时可优先录用。不管桥牌水平的高低,以后都可以以桥牌为职业,不用为找工作发愁。无论从事什么职业,在生活和工作中都可以从桥牌中吸取丰富的营养,为人处世较为睿智稳重,从牌桌上得到的感悟,经验和教训将会对爱好者的一生产生积极而微妙的影响。桥牌可以提高学生的成功素质,让学生们变得更加聪明,对今后的学习、生活、工作都有很大好处。桥牌不仅可以启智、怡情、修身、养性、娱乐,还具有独特的教育功能,学生将受益终身。

桥牌是高雅文明的扑克游戏
桥牌是益智延年的健脑体操
桥牌是友谊合作的社交平台
桥牌是公平竞争的智力运动

[ 本帖最后由 csq2005ygf 于 2015-12-28 06:32 编辑 ]




齐鲁石化新闻(ZT)

标题:公司老年桥牌队全国赛获奖
供稿:公司老年体协棋牌分会       
 
       秋天是收获的季节。
       由国家体育总局、全国老龄工作委员会办公室、中国老年人体育协会联合主办的第三届全国
老年人体育健身大会棋牌交流活动,8月28日至9月1日在山西省晋城市举行。来自全国29个省市
(区)、行业体协的658名运动员报名参赛,其中桥牌队33支、227人。


 
       公司老年桥牌队一行6人,代表山东省参加了本届老健会的桥牌交流活动。他们跨黄河穿太行,
千里之行始于足下,发扬团结勤奋、争创一流的传统和不怕疲劳、连续作战的作风,经过9轮紧张
激烈、斗智斗勇的鏖战,取得了优异的成绩,荣获本届比赛的最高奖 ── 优胜奖,并获体育道德
风尚奖。充分展示了齐鲁石化老年人的风采,又一次为公司争得荣誉。


左起:刁雪琴、陈宏斌、陈寿琪(兼教练)、王兴刚(领队)、刘  庆、李玉民









本帖子中包含更多资源

您需要 登录 才可以下载或查看,没有帐号?注册

x
 楼主| 发表于 2015-10-1 19:30:54 | 显示全部楼层
2015 Bermuda Bowl Supplemental Bridge Notes
for David-Shan (Canada) Partnership

2D "MULTI": weak 2M, with/without strong option(s)

Pass Neutral, OR takeout DBL of one M, or decent but not FG two-suiter
DBL 14-16+ or 20+ (bid again) BAL, or sound 18+ UNBAL
2NT 17-19 (3C=Stayman, 3R=transfer, 3S=minors)
2M NAT (2NT F1, cheap OM=ART, jump OM=NAT); Responsive DBLs
3C NAT (3D=ART, 3M NAT); Responsive DBLs
3D NAT (3S NAT, 3H=H or H guard [then 3S=OK for H: resp’s 3NT=H guard/other=H]); Resp DBL
3H Intermediate (3S=ART)
3S 5+m/5+S, FG (3NT=NAT; 4C asks: 4D=D/4H=C/4S=6+S; 4D=S/T in minor; 4H=S/T-S)
3NT NAT, tricks (transfer advances)
4m* 5+m/5+H, FG (over 4m: cheapest=S/T-H; next non-4NT=S/T-m; 4NT=6 RKCB)
4M Strong (cheap step RKCB1430-M, others: controls agreeing M/4NT over 4H=S control)
4NT* Minors, sound


(2D) DBL (2H)* 2S NAT, NF: theoretically 5+S as DBL suggests 2+S


(2D) DBL (2M)* Pass NF: then DBL of CORRECTION is for takeout
DBL* At least invitational values (9+
), some defensive tolerance. If less than
FG: no SPL or 5M. If FG: stopper only in their BID M. 4M/4OM possible.
2NT* Puppet to 3C: “signoff” or FG with a minor OR balanced with a stopper
only in the UNBID Major. (follow-ups below). With the “signoff” type
advancer will have about 6-9 HCP
3C* “Stayman”: GF opposite 14-16 type; continuations as after 2NT-3C.
3R* Transfer to 3R+1, at least INV values (may be slightly lighter with H).
3S* ART FG with SPL in their BID M
3NT About 11-15 HCP, stoppers in both majors.
4m Strong invitation.
4M NAT, distributional (else 3R*)
4NT Blackwood, aces.
2D) DBL (2M)* 2NT*
3C* 14-16 BAL (with “more” doubler does o/wise)
3D* ART, 20+

BAL GF (then: 3M=SPL, 4m=NAT/GF, 3NT/4NT= NAT)
3M NAT, 18+
, UNBAL, GF (then: OM is a cue bid, 4m is NAT)


(2D) DBL (2M)* 2NT*
3C* Pass Our route to 3C
3D Expected to be the end
3H* GF with C (corresponding minor)
3S* GF with D (corresponding minor)
3NT* BAL, GF, stopper only in M they DIDN’T BID


2

(2D) DBL (2M)* Pass
(P/2S) DBL 20+, cooperative takeout (LEB advances)
SUIT NAT, STR


(2D) DBL (P/RDBL) [where Pass or RDBL is neutral or shows D]
Pass Willing to defend, may not be big D stack
2M NAT, COMP strength
2NT* C (PUP to 3C when DBL=14-16: then 3D=FG, 3M=NAT)
3C* Stayman
3R* Transfers to 3R+1, INV+
3S* 3NT bid, but no D stopper
3NT About 11-15 HCP, stoppers in both majors.
4m Strong invitation.
4M NAT, distributional (else 3R*)
4NT Blackwood, aces.


(2D) DBL (2H)* DBL*
(P) Pass Good defense
2S 4S (but not both maximum and a H stopper)
2NT NAT, non-maximum
3m NAT, non maximum
3H*
20+
BAL or SEMI-BAL (bid again)
3S* Maximum, not 4S, no H stopper OR 20+
BAL (bid again)
3NT Maximum, not 4S, but has a H stopper
4m/4S NAT, 20+
(now 4NT is NAT)
4H* Huge three-suiter

(2D) DBL (2H)* DBL*
(2S) Pass NF (reopening: DBL=PEN, 3S=FG w/ SPL S)
DBL PEN (takeout to 3S=FG w/ SPL S)
2NT NAT, non-minimum
3m NAT, non-minimum
3H NAT, non-minimum
3S Maximum, no S stopper, or 20+ BAL (bid again)
3NT NAT, expecting a minimum of 9 HCP
4m/4H NAT, 20+
(now 4NT = NAT)
4S Huge three-suiter


(2D) DBL (2S)* DBL*
(P) Pass Good defense
2NT NAT, non-maximum
3m/3H NAT, non-maximum
3S* Maximum, no S stopper OR 20+
BAL (bid again)
3NT NAT
4m/4H NAT, 20+
(now 4NT is NAT)
4S* Huge three-suiter
(2D) DBL (2S)* DBL*
(3H) Pass F, either 14-16 without 4S, OR 20+
DBL 14-16, 4S, defensively oriented
3S 14-16, 4S, offensively oriented
3NT NAT, NF (stopper, 15-16)
4x NAT, 14-16, unwilling to defend 3H doubled


(2D) DBL (2S)* DBL*
(3H) Pass (P) DBL Desire to defend opposite 14-16
3S* FG, no H stopper
3NT* Takeout (denies 4S, presumably shows at least 4+C/4+D)
4H* FG, SPL H


(2D) DBL (2S)* DBL*
(3H) DBL (P) Pass Desire to defend opposite 14-16
3S/4S NAT
3NT NAT (probably invitational values with heart stopper and not 4S)
4m NAT, INV (with signoff or FG with a minor, bid 2NT* over 2S)
4H* GF with 4S, slam interest (?)


(2D) DBL (3C) Pass NF
DBL* Responsive (cooperative takeout)
3D* H INV+ TFR (3S*=cue, looking for club stopper)
3H* S INV+ TFR
3S* D INV+ TFR (FG unless doubler bids 4D)
3NT NAT (C stopper)
4C

(2D) DBL (3D) Pass NF
DBL* Responsive (cooperative takeout)
3M FG (perhaps a stretch)
3NT NAT (D stopper)
4C INV
4R* TRF to 4R+1
4S* TRF to C
(2D) DBL (3H)* Pass NF (later: DBL correction for takeout, bid 4H NAT)
DBL* Responsive (cooperative takeout)
3S FG (perhaps a stretch)
3NT NAT (H stopper)
4m NAT, INV
4H* TRF to S
4S* TRF to C
4NT* TRF to D
(2D) DBL (3S*) Pass NF (later: DBL correction for takeout, bid 4S NAT)
DBL* Responsive (cooperative takeout)
3NT NAT (H stopper)
4C NAT, INV
4D* TRF to H
4H* TRF to C
4S* TRF to D (no INV 4D available


(2D) Pass (2H*) Pass NF (later: DBL S= T/O, 2NT=2-suiter, 3x NAT/limited)
DBL Takeout of H (LEB advances)
2NT/3NT NAT (transfers as above)
2S/3m NAT (advance as after DIRECT overcall of 2D)
3H NAT (full value)
3S Intermediate
4m 5+m/5+S, FG
4M NAT, strong


(2D) Pass (2M)* Pass
(P/2S) DBL Takeout, could be full value (LEB advances)
2NT C+D (but over 2S C+H or D+H possible)
Cue Two-suiter, good hand but not FG
Suit bids NAT (limited by failure to act over 2D)


(2D) Pass (3M/4M)* Pass NF (later DBL=takeout)
DBL Takeout
3NT NAT, covers a lot of ground (4C asks TYPE/TFR advances)
Others NAT
(2D) Pass (3H/4H)* Pass
(P) DBL Takeout
3S/4S* S+m
3NT/4NT* C+D
4H* Stronger than 3S (S+m)
Others Less than immediate suit bids (not very likely)


(2D) Pass (3S)* Pass
(P) DBL Takeout
3NT* Two-suiter (pass-or-correct technique when advancing)
4H* H+C or H+D (stronger than 3NT*)
Others Less than immediate suit bids (not very likely)
4NT C+D (stronger than 3NT*)


(2D) Pass (4m*) DBL Like a sound overcall in that suit (where 4m is artificial)
(2D) Pass (4m*) Pass
(4M) DBL Takeout


(2D) Pass (2NT=INQ) DBL STR at least 4/3 Ms
3x NAT
3NT Tricks
4M STR
4m 5+m/5+M, FG

(2D) Pass (P)* ? [where Pass is random or shows D]
DBL Takeout of D or very strong
2M NAT
2NT About 15-18 (2NT structure to advance)
3C NAT (3D=ART, 3M=NAT)
3D* Some solid suit, no D guard
3M STR
3NT Tricks
4C* 5+C/5+M, FG
4D* 5+D/5+M, FG (penalty vs 2D inadequate)
 楼主| 发表于 2015-10-9 08:37:26 | 显示全部楼层

对NT开叫的防守叫牌(USA2)

VS. NT (vs. Strong / Weak; Reopening; PH)
2m = m+5cardM; 2H=MM;
DBL= 4M+5,6m or 1 suiter C,D,H or both M strong or strong S or strong BAL
After DBL, 2C=P/C for m, 2D = bid M
after other bids, 2nt = CUE
after 2H, p, 2NT - respond as though we open 2H[14]

Vs weak
DBL=penalty, 2 clubs=Ms, 2 dia= 1 M, 2M= M and m


[14]
Note 14
2H Bad hand with both M usually 9 or 10 or more cards in both M; very, very
rarely could be 4-4 only if at favorable in 1st or 3rd seat - but very unlikely
2NT ASKS - 3C=MIN, then 3D asks better M; 3M natural to play
3D=medium with better H, 3H medium with better S, 3S 5-5 MIN, 3NT 5-5 good
3m to play
3M to play
same in competition
 楼主| 发表于 2016-6-21 08:55:48 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 csq2005ygf 于 2018-6-23 11:58 编辑

(2)
S
♠ 7 2
♡ K 8 7 5 2
♢ A K 10 9
♣ Q 9

If you manage to strip South of his diamonds – using
your two trump entries – you can squeeze North in
clubs and hearts by running your trumps. The whole
distribution is obvious: North cannot blank his ten of
hearts against the doubleton nine in dummy lest South
gets caught in a “stepping-stone” sort of endplay, nor
can he give up his club trick.
East uses his two trump entries to dummy, the spade
jack and six(!) to ruff diamonds, then runs the rest of
his trumps.
East leads last ♠ and pitches the ♣ from dummy.
The defenders can take only one more trick. Terence
Reese identified this position as the Vice Squeeze.

(1)
S
♠ K J 8
♡ Q 9 8 5
♢ A 3
♣ A J 6 3

East should be wide-awake as declarer leads a club
from dummy. The defence needs two tricks in clubs
to defeat the slam. This can be done if West holds a
singleton jack or queen. South has the ace and will
probably try to duck the first club round to West in
order to get a ruff and discard. So go up immediately
with your king!


(7)
N
[ J 6 3
] 6 5
{ K 5 2
} J 9 7 4 2

South should realize that his red suit holdings willbe threatened soon, possibly as soon as on the thirdround of trumps, especially if he cashes a club honour,allowing West to ruff away two more clubs (if necessaryruffing high and finessing in trumps). A diamondcontinuation is mandatory regardless, to knock out anentry, but before, not after, cashing a club. If West hasa club loser or two he won’t be able to dispose of them.The real danger comes when his heart holding is fourto the queen, which is actually the case.After continuing with a diamond a trick two to the kingand ace declarer will lead a low heart from dummy. Youmust take your king and still must not cash a club. Returna high heart (or a trump) and declarer will not have theentries to be able to execute the squeeze.Your cashing a club prematurely would help him toshorten his trumps by two ruffs so he can end in dummywith the third round of spades, squeezing you at thesame time in the red suits. The point in this defence isperhaps: never make any play without a good reason, ora better purpose than just that of winning a trick quickly.


(6)
W                         E
[ J 9 8 5 3             [ K Q
] A J 5                   ] 4
{ J 8 2                   { Q 9 7 5 3
} K 8                     } 10 9 7 4 3

You should try to avoid guessing the trumphonours. If the king of clubs is onside you won’tneed to open up the trump suit at all. Return a spadeat once and use dummy’s entries to ruff spades inyour hand, a diamond in dummy, then concede theclub loser. In the three-card ending you are down totrumps in both hands and the opponents must findthe trump jack for you.


(3)
S
[ 9 7 6 5 4
] A
{ 8 7 4 2
} 10 4 2

You cannot prevent a diamond ruff by North if Southhas the blank ace of hearts. But you can force him togive back the stolen trick through an endplay, if you playthe spade ace and ruff a spade before leading trumps.When South wins the ]A he can either lead a cluband give up on the diamond ruff, or give his partnerthe ruff and simultaneously endplay him.



(4)
S
[ K 10 3
] A 8 3
{ A 8 7 2
} A J 5

If you play the small spade from dummy to the openinglead, South may insert his ten-spot (or jack) instead of theking, a little manoeuvre which ensures at least five tricksfor the defence. A very simple way to prevent it is to goup with the ace. South may well have an opening bidwithout the king of spades, but against a North holding offive spades to the king your contract is doomed anyway.


(5)
W                             E
[ K J 10 7                  [ 8 3 2
] 4                            ] Q 10 9 8 6 2
{ K 9 7 6 3               { J 5 2
} A J 8                       } 10

Taking the diamond lead you will surely play a clubto the king. Since West is short in hearts, the odds arethat he started with three clubs and four spades. If so,he can be subjected to an early squeeze in three suitsby playing ace and a heart finesse. (Do not try aceand a spade towards the queen or West will win andclear diamonds.) If West parts with a diamond youcan set about establishing clubs, while a spade pitchyields three spade tricks to you.


(8)
W                           E
[ K 10 7 5               [ J 6 2
] K 10 5                 ] Q 8 7 4
{ A 4                      { 2
} A J 9 2                 } K Q 10 7 6

The auction reveals four spades with West, probablyto the king. Therefore your best chance is to play Eastfor the jack or ten (or both) and set up your spadeswith a single ruff while discarding three hearts fromthe table: starting, of course, with a deep finesse andcontinuing with a ruffing finesse against the king.So win the second diamond in dummy and lead aspade to the nine and king. Ruff the club ace, thenplay the spade ace pitching a heart and lead out thespade queen to pin the jack. Then you can discardboth dummy’s remaining hearts on your good spadesand ruff a heart on the board.


(9)
East can probably be squeezed in the black suits,however, alas, the diamond attack removes youressential late entry for that. Trumps certainly won’tsplit nicely, but you may try a partial dummy reversalto substitute for the missing entry. Hold off the firstround of diamonds and win the second, then carefullyplay the QUEEN of clubs (to stay in dummy), whichEast must duck to protect his club winner.


NEW PROBLEM【10】
Dealer East.
North-South Vul.
                    N
                    ♠ J 10 9 7 4
                    ♡ A Q 7 2
                    ♢ K
                    ♣ K 9 3
W
♠ 8 5 2
♡ 10 9 8 5 3
♢ 9 7
♣ A Q J

West   North   East   South
                      1♣*     Pass
1♢*     Pass    1NT    Pass
2♡      Pass    2♠       Pass
2NT   Pass     3NT    All Pass

1♣     Strong
1♢     Negative


Play Instructions: 3NT by East. South to lead ♢5.
East to take the ♢K and return the ♡K.


(10)
The full deal:
North should beat the contract by taking the king of
hearts and returning a low club into dummy’s club tenace.
               E
               [ A K Q 6
               ] K J
               { A J 6 3
               } 10 8 5
S
[ 3
] 6 4
{ Q 10 8 5 4 2
} 7 6 4 2

This defence removes declarer’s second entry
prematurely. The jack of hearts will be ducked, and
the suit is as good as dead. A throw-in against North
doesn’t help.
If North ducks the first two hearts declarer can still
succeed (at double dummy) by taking an early club
finesse. If North wins it and doesn’t cash hearts then
South can be stripped of his club exits and endplayed in
diamonds. If North ducks the first club he is endplayed
in spades to give up two clubs.

注:(经过同伴同意)
1、对4NT问叫回答5NT表示0或2关键张,有一个很有用的缺门。
2、对4NT问叫回答低于将牌的6阶花色表示1或3个关键张,所叫花色是缺门。
3、对4NT问叫回答6阶统一的将牌表示1或3个关键张,有一个比将牌级别高的花色是缺门。



对2NT开叫的低花探贯约定(YC)

开叫2NT(20-21)后应叫人如何探寻低花满贯是一个难题。
2/1体系,应叫人3C后再叫4C为有满贯兴趣的双高花约定,其实没有必要。

我们将再叫4C约定为低花探贯叫:
2NT            3C(PUP)
3?             4C(低花探贯)

开叫人答叫如下:
4D    C 单接受
4H    D 单接受
4S    m's 双接受(6KC)
4NT  拒绝

说明:
如无配合,可启动刹车装置(4S),安全停在4NT/5m。



实战牌例(1)
J 7 2                   A K 6         
A K J                   8 7
A K 6 3               T 9 5
K Q 9                  A T 7 6 3

2NT                    3C
3NT                    4C
4S                      4NT
5C(4KC)        5D(mQ?)
5H(CQ)          6C
Pass


实战牌例(2)
A Q T 3              6           
K 8 4                  A Q 5
A 9                     J 7 6 3
A K T 6               Q J 8 7 4

2NT                    3C
3D                      4C
4D                      4NT
5C(4KC)        5D(mQ?)
6C                      Pass





Report of the ACBL Ethical
Oversight Committee
In the matter of disciplinary charges against
Lotan Fisher, Player No. 1906658, and Ron Schwartz,
Player No. 1906623, the Ethical Oversight Committee
unanimously finds:
1. Overwhelming evidence establishes that charged
parties Lotan Fisher and Ron Schwartz engaged
in collusive cheating and gave false information
about prior disciplinary convictions when
applying for ACBL membership.

2. Pursuant to the ACBL Code of Disciplinary
Regulations Appendix B, Part B, E15, Lotan
Fisher and Ron Schwartz are EXPELLED, with
loss of all membership rights and privileges in the
ACBL. Also, pursuant to the Code of Disciplinary
Regulations 3.2 and 4.1.8a, Lotan Fisher and Ron
Schwartz hereby FORFEIT 100% of their total
ACBL masterpoint holdings, with loss of all titles,
status ranks and privileges.

3. Also, pursuant to the ACBL Code of Disciplinary
Regulations 4.1.8c, the partners and teammates
of Lotan Fisher and Ron Schwartz are subject to
mandatory forfeiture of all masterpoints, titles
and status ranks earned during the preceding four
years calculated from the 2015 Spingold final.


A Message from ACBL
President Ken Monzingo
For the second time this week, members of
ACBL’s Ethical Oversight Committee, this time
led by chair Jon Brissman, worked tirelessly in a
three-day hearing to reach a decision regarding the
charges of collusive cheating by Lotan Fisher and
Ron Schwartz. The above result again confirms that
our members will never tolerate such behavior. These
diligent committee members gave many hours of their
personal time, and ACBL management spent months
compiling volumes of evidence, once again sending
the message that our organization is serious in this
matter. This is a refreshing new era of responsibility
and accounting: ACBL will actively pursue and
prosecute cheaters.
Again, on behalf of myself, the Board of
Directors, ACBL management and the 168,000 other
members of the League, we owe gratitude and respect
to the courageous committee members Jon Brissman,
Cheri Bjerkan, Dennis Clerkin, Lesley Davis, Bruce
Ferguson, Bob Glasson, Hendrik Sharples and Eddie
Wold. And special thanks to EOC Chairman Bart
Bramley along with League Counsel Peter Rank and
co-counsel Jeff Overby for their dedication in making
sure such behavior will never be accepted in any
part of our game. I also wish to thank the volunteer
services of Bob Hamman, Jeff Meckstroth and Meyer
Kotkin. I am so proud of them all.
It’s a great new beginning, and I am confident
that management and the Board of Directors, with
the help of these extraordinary volunteer members of
the EOC, will continue to ensure the game of bridge
is conducted on a level playing field, and that those
who would connive to play otherwise will face the
maximum penalties available.




将概率计算到底

一、定约3NT
K                  1/8                          12.5%


二、定约4S(吃一次C)  
K    JXX         62.2*3/7                  26.66
       J9           30.5*2/7*1/6              1.45
J     KXX        31.1*3/7                  13.33   
        K9          30.5*2/7*1/6             1.45
9     KJX         31.1*3/7*1/3            4.44
        KJ                                                     1.45
X     KJ9        31.1*3/7*1/3*1/5*5       4.45            
--------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                    53.23%

将牌分布:            
3----2                                          67.80
4----J                                            5.66
--------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                    73.46%

4S成功率:
53.23%*73.46%                             39.10%


三、成局总概率      
12.50% + 39.10% = 51.60%


四、结论
应叫人Pass是个错。



http://www.idigest.net/chat-all.html
http://www.zhihu.com/topic/19590019/question
http://www.usbf.org
http://www.wintergames.bridgemonaco.com
http://www.dajunzk.com
http://www.xiaobridge.com/BridgeNews/So
http://www.qlsh.tv/
http://www.bridgebase.com/

http://mail.yeah.net/js5/main.js ... comeModule%7C%7B%7D
http://mail.yeah.net/js6/main.js ... comeModule%7C%7B%7D

第一问,有如下选项:
A、成绩一样15 :5VP,不分高下;
B、前一场平淡(进球数较少),后一场精彩、好看;
C、两个胜队可以庆祝——小胜大胜都是胜;
D、两个负队也不悲观——没有输到0,还有机会;
E、人不是机器,总会犯错误——正常;
F、赢了就好,说啥?——胜利者是不受指责的;
G、失误那么多还赢到15VP——太爽啦!
H、输了很想总结,但我不会——力不从心。
…………
您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册

本版积分规则

实验广告

小黑屋|手机版|Archiver|齐鲁弈友 ( 沪icp备17019843 )

GMT+8, 2019-6-25 22:10 , Processed in 0.318719 second(s), 18 queries .

Powered by Discuz! X3.2

© 2001-2013 Comsenz Inc.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表